The high-level specification that declares business need is named Business Requirements Document (BRD). Frankly, I saw many cases when it was just a comments thread in a ticket system.
The next possible level is a technical vision or some Architectural Document. This is the usually skipped level in mid-size organizations. Who saw clearly documented architecture?
The low-level is detailed requirements made by analysts in the form of Software Requirements Specification or ..., mostly, again, tasks in a ticket system.
So, there are levels rarely followed by the people.
Everything is in the form of backlog records. Main kinds of it is:
Epics — sort of business requirements. Optional.
Stories — sort of business requirements somewhat detailed.
So, these are levels that can be followed easily, because of simplicity.